mansions, men, women, and the creation of multiple publics in eighteenth-century british north america.

by:Frank Tech     2020-02-27
Beginning in the first quarter of the 18th century, many colonial elites built houses that followed the example of the English underclass.
The size and function of these houses are different from those of the earlier ones.
Not only are they larger, but they divide the space so far that has no difference into separate rooms where special social interaction is carried out and the public part of the house can be separated from the private part.
Academic discussions about new space arrangements in the Big House focus on an aspiring upstart
The financial elite is pursuing a gentle and gentle. [1]
The gorgeous room marks wealth and taste, and therefore the superiority of society, because the rich invest their belongings and houses in meaningful things through a coded polite act, this has made the class distinction more acute.
Such a process may be correct, but this article goes beyond the general nature of the space resources provided by the eighteenth-century architecture
Century tower allows the formation of a public with multiple personalities.
It assumes that the colonial mansion is both a mirror of colonial society and a metaphor for colonial society, and asks what the public has created through the different access and use of space, how these members of the public bring people together and integrate into more and broader interest and ultimate power communities, and how these members of the public become more sexually explicit over time.
To explore this more subtle use of space, e. ssay took advantage of Jurgen Habermas, Karen Hansen\'s theoretical insights, and Hannah Arendt demonstrated the process of real public and theoretical public development in the construction of the public domain. [2]
See the evolution of colonial mansions from the two-room Hall
Living room for many people
The spacious Big House offers a space for layered organization where men can enter the more formal, expensive, and mentally satisfying part of the House --Male activity.
These rooms are the political and intellectual centres of the house, allowing men to interact with their male peers at all levels, while the library allows them to cultivate leisure life for the time being, perhaps even involved in what Hannah Arendt said was \"the only truly free way of life,\" as it did, excluding \"the necessities of life on Earth \". \" [3]
The mansion also offers mixed spaces
Gender and female public will appear.
Different social interactions use almost the same space as all male socials, except for the library, but considering 18-
For centuries, people\'s ideas about women\'s intellectual ability often limit their conversations and opinions to the surface. All-
Unless it is a bedroom for single women, the female space in the big house will never be open without conditions.
Married women also use the bedroom as a private living room, which will of course be shared with their spouse.
However, in terms of functionality,
The century mansion allowed the elite to separate men and women at home before the American Revolution, a model filtered from 1820 to the middle class, people studied in the 19th century are called \"female culture\" or \"independent fields \". [4]
The eighteenth-
The century tower allows the formation of multiple public, but the term itself requires the definition to be useful.
In this article, the public will refer to private groups that form public opinion;
Or people who make rational and judgment about the human, natural, social and political world around them;
Or someone who shares assumptions, values, or conclusions about that world;
Or those who are emotionally connected or indulge in individual reward behavior;
Or a person who judges the taste, virtue, value, or education of others. [5]
In addition to personnel, there are other features of the public.
The colonial public was accidental and disappeared, and it could be said that it was essential.
They are accidental because they are formed in a specific historical context (
A Gentleman\'s dinner or a big house dance is a specific social event with a specific time and place).
They are temporary because they come together and then disperse in a loop that repeats with different actors, and perhaps for different purposes.
They are essential because they not only create areas of interaction with others, but more importantly, this dialogue creates an understanding of the world, in fact, the reality of the world itself.
The emergence of more than one public means that more than one reality is possible in the physical, social and psychological spaces provided by the big house. [6]
However spacious, the mansion is just one of the many places for the elite to form a variety of public.
In fact, the big house complements the military, government, church and judicial process of pubs, cafes, clubs, or occasionally bringing them together.
Such outdoor gathering places, from open public spaces such as pubs to more restricted public private spaces such as clubs, constitute a continuous part of a family\'s closed private public space.
Only the mansion allows the elite to interact with them when they wish, not by chance who is present, such as in a tavern, or at odd times when a legally authorized institution meets.
Of course, in rural areas (
Like a plantation in the South.
There are very few pubs, and the mansion is the only place to meet most of the time. [7]
Alternative public spaces for women are more limited.
Respected women do not frequent pubs, although young men and women at lower levels may dance there in groups.
There are no female staff in the club or cafe.
Major cities in the second half of the 18th
Century offers dance halls and theaters where men and women find other people they like, but the seasons in these places are limited and there are far fewer private clients than the houses offered. [8]
Earlier or less housing also failed to provide more private public space for women.
Before the big house appeared, cooking and most of the other household chores were done in the public \"hall\" of the Hall --
The house in the living room, the form of the House discussed below.
Did worse chores in the yard.
Once the house is large enough to have a separate kitchen, the woman in the House rarely does more heavy and dirty work in her daily life, although she may still supervise the work of others.
Even if women sometimes provide emotional support to each other, it is unlikely that she will form a public with slaves or servants. [9]
All in all, in addition to any other space provided by culture, the mansion offers its own special location in which many members of the public can merge.
The Big House Gives Elite men a more intimate choice than external institutions, and for southern rural areas it is the only easy-to-reach space for them to meet without being disturbed by temporary tourists ---
Urbanization is one of the development differences between the north and the south of the plantation.
The size of the big house has been greatly reduced, providing the same functionality for women.
But while the mansion has opened up a series of alternative public offerings for men, it\'s more vague for women.
In the 18th century ongoing debate on whether or not women have acquired or lost control of relations outside the family with the world, this article supports the latter explanation, because the social location of the mansion allows them to edge from the political, economic and intellectual center of the house. [10]
The evolution of the American colonial mansion in the first decades of the 18th century.
It\'s enlightening to see what it was before, and how this lack of space made habemcia private.
Difficulties in the public domain.
Even at the end of the 18th century, most housing in the United States was crowded and cramped.
The size of the family remained relatively stable between 1700 and 1775, and the average number of all colonies was between 5 and 7.
The average floor area is less than 1,000 square feet, and the average floor area is less than half. The better-
The farmer has a home with two rooms on the first floor, known as the \"hall\"parlor\" house.
He may have two more rooms upstairs.
Those with a lower social scale have a smaller house with two rooms and probably half of the story above.
Even the rich have lived in places like Virginia until the 18th century, until the age of 1750 in the Connecticut Valley in West Massachusetts. [11]
The area of the house affects the scope of indoor activities, as well as the privacy and specialization of owners and tourists. The hall-
The living room arrangement of the richer class makes it possible to separate public places from work space, men from women, at least in part.
The lobby is the working part of the house where food is prepared, eaten, washed, replenished and most other household chores are done.
This is the warm part of the house in the winter, except for the owner of the house, it may provide a place to sleep for all.
The living room has the best bed of the house, better Chair, maybe smaller table, any Chinese or silver, picture-
In short, anything of value can be displayed.
But we\'re talking about two rooms.
Men can talk freely in the living room, but family life is nearby with at least privacy.
It is certainly quite easy for women in the House to know the situation, to know gossip and to know politics.
It may also be easier to master the economy of the family, as there is no private research or office that will allow men to retreat.
All in all, more knowledge is shared.
Perhaps coincidentally, women have more power.
In this case, the people who wish to be with others went to the local pub and by the end of the 17th century, where private rooms had been developed, where gentlemen could talk to each other.
The first cafe in Boston opened at 1676.
1690 of two cups of coffee in Boston
The houses were run by Benjamin Harris, the bookseller and the first newspaper publisher of the colonists.
It\'s all in this-
Men can learn about the latest news and the male space to do business.
More importantly, they can also take each other\'s steps to decide who can be trusted and respected.
Perhaps, as Habermas suggested, it was the creation of all --
Male space that allows politically important public.
The French salon, which reflects the influence of women, has never been like all people, from art to politics, from style to material, from
British men\'s coffee shop. [12]
The evolution of the big house, as well as the space it can provide, takes place in the usually recognizable stage.
Mount Vernon may be a good example.
Between 1674 and 1700, there is a certain structure on the site that could be a Hall --
A living room
Half a story high
Some time before 1740, the house was expanded to 30-
3 feet by 40-
7 feet large houses with two rooms on each side of the Central Hall--
Bedroom, large living room, small living room and dining room.
George Washington inherited the house in 1754, and after getting married in 1759, he expanded it again, adding a second story.
These upstairs rooms are clearly bedrooms, although in some mansions, such as the governor\'s palace in Virginia, \"the most influential house in Chesapeake in the early 18th century \", miles Bruton, Charleston, South Carolina, or the house in the town of Samuel Bauer, Philadelphia, a room on the second floor became a large room for the house, known as the living room. From 1773-
1 787 Mount Vernon was further expanded by adding two rooms on both sides of the building.
In the Washington era, the North room, known as the \"new room\" or the \"big restaurant\", became the most magnificent room in the House, rising up the entire two floors.
The South turned into a library in Washington.
On the second floor, he added a bedroom connected to it by a narrow staircase.
Figure 1 shows the completed plan.
In the course of this century, a simple two-
Different owners transformed the room lobby and living room into a Georgian mansion with 12 rooms, with a hall, a large and small living room, a large and small dining room, a gentleman library, and six bedrooms[13]
While the lobby and living room of the two rooms may allow tension between function and authority as the independent public has no place to form, a 12-
The guest room building separates the two, allowing the diversity of the public and the formation of grades in the process of strengthening the importance of social hierarchy.
The British gentleman culture provides an example for the colonists to have desires now and, more importantly, the houses and the public that need to be followed. The eighteenth-
In the order of what Cary Carson calls a \"level of social importance\", the rooms of the century Georgian building are ballroom, living room; dining room; parlor, hall; library;
And finally the bedroom.
In these spaces of psychological and physical separation, different public will grow. If the two-
The house in the room made it difficult for the whole family to convey a private message without knowing it, and the larger house facilitated this isolation.
It makes it possible for the public in the mansion, as it allows for an increasingly marginalized \"reality\" of women whose main defining feature can be said to be gender. [14]
All possibilities
The large male Space House offers men the opportunity to meet with other men, more selective than the economically viable elite pubs and cafes of the eighteenth centurycentury.
Regarding the male family space, it is important to control its entry.
Not even everyone is welcome.
For analysis, we can define three different public, which reflects the bonds men share in the family space, however, keep in mind that these may overlap in practice.
The first is the \"bonhomie\" most common public, which brings together old friends and creates new friends in a relaxed atmosphere.
The second is a more useful public form because it needs to be part of maintaining the flow of economic and political information in a larger culture.
The third is the wider \"humanism\" or scientific public, which may be generated through personal interaction, but usually taken with far-
Flung network of educated and interested peers.
With the exception of the last point, all of this encourages men to interact more openly and ideally in the house.
Personal communication can be carried out in the library-
Inner Sanctum for men
The man did not meet other men in the bedroom.
If the party is big enough, the living room and dining room are big enough, and the living room and dining room provide a private setting for men to combine with each other.
The most important thing is that there is no woman.
On a business trip to Philadelphia in 1744, young William Black found an old acquaintance who invited him to visit.
Blake then reported, \"I found him at home as promised, where I had a great time spending the first half of the night.
He kept the Batchellor House, so he was more free than when his wife and children were obedient. \" [15]
In South Carolina.
He and his friends ,\"Figure 2)
When they were engaged in light, they were obviously at ease with each other --
As the wig on the stick suggests, it\'s a kind joke or even some stupidity.
Without women, men have different temperament.
They can be less \"polite\" and more relaxed.
They can talk about different things.
The young, lively, male, black slave nodded on one side of the room, like a parrot, without a barrier to male social interaction.
In this case, gender exceeds race in determining elite comfort.
Perhaps because slaves are far away from white culture, the people in the room may mistakenly think that their privacy will be protected so as not to gossip later.
European tourists are familiar with and pleased with the gender segregation model.
The Marquis of Chastellux called General Philip Schuler the kindest master of Albany\'s house, but when he went with an all-male party and general to his farm in Saratoga, they had a better time, \"for general Schuler, like many European husbands he was still more amiable when he was not with his wife.
\"As women leave, mixed dinners that return to single sex Social change roles.
After removing the tablecloth, the rest of the people drank and smoked, \"dinner began to get happy,\" as Chastellux mentioned at James Wilson\'s home in Philadelphia. [16]
Men combine, test each other in cards and jokes, behave foolishly, under the surface, and more importantly, evaluate each other, or even mix
Sex activities were carried out in other parts of a big house. At a well-
Attended a dance party on 1774 in Richard Lee\'s House, Virginia squire, dancing in other rooms in the hall, gentlemen playing cards, \"some drink for entertainment;
Toast the sons of America;
Some people who sing what they call the song of freedom, six, eight, ten or more of them, will roar their heads together.
When Philip fizion in the North
The educated tutor who attended the ball was rudely fired by George Lee because he neither danced nor played cards and was really told unless he was involved in public activities, so that he can be evaluated according to the rules of the public, otherwise he is not part of the public. [17]
Meeting with friends or letter of introduction to ensure they are socially acceptable does not rule out the exchange of potentially useful information.
While newspapers appeared in the 18th century, and the larger \"informed\" public that followed, most of the news was available in an objective sense, which was not modern enough.
Colonial Newspapers and English magazines often ignore local events, and their more distant reports are only a few weeks or months away.
Even elites learn a lot from each other, especially travelers.
In the 18th century, an elite colonial culture emerged that allowed recognition of its members and broad common interests.
On 1744, Scottish foreign doctor Alexander Hamilton from Annapolis, Maryland to Maine found the door open to him.
While most of his male social activities take place in clubs and pubs, occasionally he is asked to eat in a more intimate setting in a private home.
Sometimes women are at the table, but sometimes not.
Without women, the conversation may turn to things that are more of an interest to men, such as trade or law (
Ladies know very little about which), or politics (
Can participate).
In New York City, he ate at Stephen Bayard\'s brother, \"there were 13 gentlemen sitting on the table, but none of them was sitting on the table.
The conversation, centered on privatization and the glory of the United States, became \"boring and peaceful \".
His boredom shows that Hamilton has not yet been surrounded by this extremist nationalist public. [18]
Josiah Quincy is also traveling for his health, but Boston lawyers have used his trip to explore his political feelings about his home country when he was in the South Pearl in 1773.
A political party from Massachusetts, Quincy.
When he tested public opinion among the local political elite, he consciously tried to create the reality of the inter-colonial public. In the pre-
At the elegant home of Charleston businessman miles Bruton, he mentioned that \"politics started before dinner.
\"The company is in a heated discussion about Britain\'s wisdom to take over Canada at the end of the seven-year war in 1763, and the secret design of Boston\'s rule of continental Europe called dinner.
At a subsequent dinner, he \"ate a delicate political dish,\" and later spoke to Bruton alone on a regular, permanent letter of continental literature.
\"The idea will evolve into a communications committee that unites the revolutionary of the various colon and shapes public opinion about the UK into a new, more evil world view. [19]
Politics is not the only Bond people build when they understand and respect each other in the privacy of a big house.
Humanistic or academic attention also brings people together, sometimes emotionally satisfying.
When the Marquis of Chastellux visited Thomas Jefferson in Monticello in 1782, he first discovered that Jefferson was retained, but within two hours of walking, the library--
The most important thing is that the conversation is always varied and always interesting, \"he found out that they agreed on both feelings and opinions.
In fact, he felt like they knew each other all their lives.
He made a special mention of one night\'s conversation, \"after a bowl of punches \".
Jefferson retired . \" When it comes to poets Ossian, chastellux and Jefferson find that when they recite paragraphs to each other, for the benefit of Chastellux\'s companions, \"a spark of electricity quickly passes from one to the other \".
The book itself was made, \"and the book and bowl had taken us late into the night before we realized it.
\"Emotional empathy, taste, and emotion blend together in the private public places of Virginia planters and French nobles. [20]
Jefferson, chastlu, and their companions may have read the book of Osan in the living room, but there is no doubt that the book was retrieved from the library of Jefferson --study.
Ministers and larger businessmen have long had research and their careers need room to be undisturbed ---
For books, ledgers and writing tools-
Time without interference
During the 18th century, businessmen and lawyers may set up offices outside their homes.
But the mansion opens up a male space that is bound or contaminated by occupation.
Here, away from clients, women, children, servants and visitors, the elite men, in the 18th century, are as close as possible to the vita contemplativa, dedicated to the life of thought and intelligence.
This cultivation was reinforced by the Printing Revolution, which, according to Habermas, replaced customers with publishers, thus turning written works into literate goods. [21]
The gentleman\'s library, or if he does not have a separate place, has a living room with his bookcase and writing desk, which is usually combined into a beautiful, huge, expensive, impressive piece of furnitureFigure 3)
For him, this aspect is likely to be the most private part of the House, on the other hand, it is also the most extensive place for him to enter all the public, the international science and technology community and the literary world. -
Republic of Letters.
\"The library is a typical private male space,\" the deepest private shrine of the great man.
\"With the development of the 18th century, this space is becoming more and more popular, and is often included in the renovation of old buildings, as happened in Mount Vernon.
Pensivania Isaac Norris II inherited the country seat Fairhill from his father, who also loves reading.
One of them has a separate library.
In the early 1770 s, John Dickinson, the famous brochure author and Patriot, inherited the use of the property through his wife, Mary Norris, and carried out a large-scale renovation to turn this dependencyoffice. [22]
The same pattern appeared in the South.
In 1741, Middleton plantation in South Carolina added two wings to become a library.
The library became an indispensable part of the late eighteenth century.
Century buildings like Charleston\'s Manigault house, built around 1790 m, are an integral part of any 19th-century large home, such as Charleston\'s Nasser Russell house, with its oval library
1809, which is the 1809 mansion Elms built by Henry Izard in Goose Creek. Mid-
19-century house planning books include libraries for luxury houses, country seats, and smaller but luxurious country houses.
Architect Gervase Wheeler describes a room like this in the cottage as \"a private study of a house gentleman\", which can be doubled as a guest room when additional accommodation is required. \" [23]
The library is usually a private space accessed by invitation.
William Bird, II, built one of the first dedicated library buildings in the United States in 1709 as an annex to Westover.
He added the lock at 1710 and in addition to his wife he kept the lock out
James Logan occupies the first two rooms on the first floor of the library in Stenton outside Philadelphia, where others may put the living room.
His pride and joy, and one of the best collections in the United States, he likes to show visitors and invite them to be part of the bibli public to which he belongs.
Not everyone is so inclined.
William Black was more interested in staying in the living room with the young Hannah Logan, who, in 1744, chagrin, found \"we\'re on vacation,, it seems that we must first check his library with anyone with an account, which is his habit.
\"People below this level are not part of Logan\'s public.
Robert Carter, arguably the richest gentleman in Virginia in his 1770 s, put his library on the f th floor in the Hall of Nomini.
In his search for a mentor for his child, one of the encouragement he gave was \"using his own library \".
\"Still, this is Carter\'s private space when new Princeton-
An educated tutor chooses to use it.
Carter gave me the key to his book at my request.
Let me spend the day alone in his library.
\"The library is not as part of the public space in the Nomini Hall as the living room, and its treasures are only provided to those holding keys. [24]
George Washington used his research to escape the public nature of the rest of his house, which he called a \"well\"Go to the pub. \" His step-
Sun Tzu described the library as \"a place where no one has entered\" unless given a clear permission.
Philadelphia tourist Samuel Poole, one of those invited to come in, explained that such a sanctuary is \"absolutely necessary\" in a house of \"eternal and elegant hospitality\"e.
A pub is open to many different members of the public. [25]
Byrd, Carter, Jefferson, Washington, and other wealthy, often intellectually curious elites occasionally entertain visitors in their library, but they use this private space more often and are free to stay away from the demands and distractions of the outside world (
The kind of time women rarely have)
Reading and thinking, sometimes writing.
William Bird reads old and new works in Greek, Latin, Hebrew and Italian, and English, and writes letters and verses.
James Logan communicated with Benjamin Franklin and New York\'s math doctor for a long time on mathematics
Cadvalard Colden
Rich Quaker businessman John Smith, an avid reader and sonin-
James Logan\'s law \"is very moved by [deception] and quirks\"
Gilbert tennath\'s sermon on the legality of the war
I decided to write an answer and start with it.
\"One of the most famous political areas of this period was a letter from John Dickinson, Philadelphia, from American farmers (1768)
Let him live well.
It is famous throughout London. (
When \"The famous Penn\" farmer \"Dickinson invited him to dinner at Fairhill, Josia Quincy had little control over himself. )
Finally, even those who are in the \"wilderness\" have built buildings with research to accommodate a surprisingly large collection of complex books, like Sir William Johnson in ilokia, now the Mohawk Valley in New York.
Away from the family and from a large number of visiting Native Americans, Johnson is one of the elite intellectuals in the United States, engaged in scientific, religious, philosophical, and political issues that command their world, and provide them with an understanding of the way they work. [26]
To sum up, the mansion not only reflects the needs of elite male owners, but also meets their desires.
The gentleman who interacted with other elite men used all the rooms except the bedroom.
Most of their social activities take place in the dining and living rooms.
They use the living room when the party is big enough.
When evaluating each other and talking about things that interest them, they take up the most gorgeous and important parts of the house.
Here, in addition to women and lower-level men, they form a wide variety of public based on who is present and what the problem is.
Quincy talks about politics,
Thomas Jefferson found a French soul mate.
The library is a sacred place for male elites.
Hidden in the privacy that only such space can provide, not only away from tourists, but also from other residents of the House, who cultivate vita contemplativa and reap the fruits of their labor, and played a role in the international public of science, religion, art and letters.
The mansion allows men to develop three kinds of common public: bonhami or friendship, political and economic information networks and integration into international intellectuals.
However, the rooms in the Big House also allow women without men to have different social spaces and occasional situational spaces.
Men and women behave differently than men.
In the term of the Marquis of Chastellux, these are narrower, more formal, more polite, and less \"happy \".
Codes of conduct required for mixed companies of men and women, as well as codes of conduct to exclude women from political and commercial activities, and 18-
Century\'s belief in women\'s low ability in knowledge pursuit and friendship to ensure that men and women together form a different public than men.
While the rise of the Big House opens the public\'s view for elite men, it limits the view of elite women.
The larger lobby and living room allow women to access most of the conversations and messages passed between men.
Even if she was not part of that conversation, she gained background knowledge and a greater sense of concern for men.
The new space arrangement separates women from the economic, political and intellectual affairs that occupy men.
What is left to them is the domestic, superficial and trivial public.
Grace, after all, rewards decorative instruments, celebrates the conquest of the necessities, and promotes time --
Consumption is frivolous.
The surface replaces the material, thus creating and strengthening the reality of the \"nature\" gender hierarchy.
For the 19th-century United States, academic attention has focused onand upper-
Middle-class women, because they are active in different areas such as social and religious reform, family worship and the development of \"women\'s culture.
\"Especially in the north, it\'s not clear what really wealthy women do.
Perhaps they become more decorative and therefore more marginal, just like the public to which they belong. [27]
This mansion provides some women with space to stay away from the outside world, thus easing the loss of the main course in the larger outside world.
Bedroom, the least gorgeous, physically and mentally farthest from the social center of the House, is the only place in a large house where non-family men are prohibited from entering.
Here, elite women create their own gay public.
Young women entertain young female friends in the bedroom of a mansion.
Both young and older women use this private space to read, and perhaps continue with private letters.
There is no private library for women.
Although the rooms in the mansion are gorgeous--
Dining room, living room & Lobby-ball or living room-
Allow men to exchange political and economic information alone or discuss intellectual issues, and these same spaces allow the public to pay attention to politeness and superficiality when used by men and women.
The lavish dance party has joined the ranks of men and women, and even though men are often included, the more intimate tea is also considered a woman\'s entertainment.
These gatherings improve social skills and provide a place for coding behavior to exacerbate class differences.
Behaviors that fit into this environment include restraint, courtesy and \"cuteness\", the most popular term in the eighteenth century, and, as it is today, it contains friendly and lovely, elegant and superficial social abilities
The ball allows the elite to show their dance skills, which Reese Isaac considers to be a class sign, especially in a society where there is no obvious nobility. The Princeton-
The educated mentor, Philip fezion, apparently failed the test. -
The real message of the above-mentioned George Lee impolite challenge. The mixed-
The gender public who attended the large social banquets held in the most magnificent rooms of the mansion decided on great intellectual, religious, political, or economic issues of the time, but more on personal issues, such as whether marriage is appropriate and its position in social order.
If a person is high enough, he (
Probably her)
You can opt out of this arena.
When Robert Carter\'s wife and children attended the grand dance of Squire Lee, Carter chose to stay at home. [28]
The tea held in the living room of the mansion provides an opportunity for men and women to mix in a more intimate private environment than the ball, thus creating a smaller public place that can contain
Here, a family is judged by the taste displayed through their tea equipment and the elegance of the woman hosting the meeting serving tea and distributing the \"chat.
\"Other activities that invite people who drink tea may be talking, singing, dancing, playing cards and other games. [29]
The formal rooms of the mansion encourage people to maintain etiquette at tea and other mixed parties for men and women, which need to be polite but not serious.
In doing so, they allowed a reality that increasingly belittled the intellectual development and achievement of women, which was conducive to courtesy and decoration.
A popular handbook of conduct warns that women must \"do not have the danger of putting themselves forward in the company, do not contradict them outright, do not advocate actively, and do not argue stubbornly, do not influence more than focus on words, listen to yourself with obvious satisfaction, ignore what others have put forward, or there is no need to interrupt them.
\"Perhaps, as Jane carmenski suggests, one of the greater trends of the 18th century is to belittle women\'s speeches in all places. [30]
Unlike men, elite women have not received mental training;
This pursuit can be considered as a responsibility to make it inappropriate for a woman to occupy those public.
Eliza Lucas, in a rare position to run her father\'s South Carolina plantation and live without any male supervision, is very smart and an avid reader.
However, her reading of Vergil and Plutarch upset an older female neighbor who warned her that getting up so early to read would ruin her appearance and therefore \"it should beher for]
\"In a society where almost all eligible women are married, she becomes inappropriate. [31]
The public of political thought and political action has also been deprived of women\'s rights, and even during the decline of British rule, women have become the main public of men.
When good ladies from Edenton, North Carolina meet at Elizabeth King\'s Mansion and sign a 1774 pledge against tea, one of their rewards is a particularly vicious comic, shows Ugly, lewd, sloppy housekeepers, incompetent mothers (figure 4).
Arthur iledel wrote jokingly to his brother James, his sister. in-
The law is one of Edenton\'s signers, and he hopes that Edenton does not have a \"Women\'s Congress\" because the British have had enough trouble at the men\'s Congress.
Women are not suitable for such an open political public. [32]Eighteenth-
Century culture does not respect women who are angry or thoughtful, nor does it necessarily admit that women have deep abilities relative to superficial emotions.
Some men even doubt whether women have real friendship.
John Ewing told Esther Edwards Burr, \"he doesn\'t think women know what friendship is.
It\'s hard for them to do something so rational.
\"Because there is no reason to take these people seriously, they may also be excluded from the public domain of serious things. [33]
Men and women use the gorgeous space in the Big House together to create a public place where witty, polite and polite conversations can make them have a good time together.
The public may have made a judgment on their members about the literary works of the time.
Although people like Philadelphia poet Elizabeth Magli may want it to be a serious forum to discuss literature, art, or philosophy, just like the salon in France.
With a few notable exceptions, French noble officers who participated in the revolution, and those who first-hand learned about the lives of the elite salon, found only a more superficial aspect in the United States. [34]
Women Without Men use much less than women with men alone.
No record of all-
Women get together, eat in a restaurant, or have a big discussion in the living room, except for Edenton women who meet at Elizabeth King\'s house.
Only men use these spaces in these areas.
After a mixed dinner between men and women, women did return to the living room, although they did not turn same-sex social spaces into heterogeneous social spaces until men joined them.
When other women visit, they also entertain them in the living room.
But the 18th-century living room is not a female space, nor is it such a decoration.
For the middle class at least, the femininity of the living room took place during the 19th century. [35]
If a woman has space, it\'s the bedroom.
The least gorgeous and exquisite rooms in the mansion, and those that are mentally and geographically farthest from most public places, the bedroom becomes a haven for women, especially unmarried women.
Here, women entertain other women or become part of the public by reading and writing.
Men are rarely allowed to enter the most intimate places of the house.
Describe the social life of Boston, Jean-Francois-
Count Clermont Louis-
Crevecoeur complained that the ladies returned to their room after drinking tea and that outsiders were prohibited from entering unless the family knew.
Exile of the French
In Philadelphia 1793, Merry wrote, \"No one has ever walked into a woman\'s bedroom. \" [36]
Once there is a private dedicated bedroom large enough, the big house provides a space where women can interact with other women and only discuss what they are interested in, thus forming a female public.
People without family responsibility
Maybe at both ends of their life cycle-
The most time
Young women are the most free.
Peggy phian Peggy Rawle visited some friends and chatted in the bedroom.
Elizabeth Dyck recalls the days when she was young and \"talked long\" with her good friend Elizabeth mode. . .
Upstairs, in the dark \".
Nancy Shipan Livingston is separated from her husband and daughter as the ward of the parents, that is, the child, sitting upstairs in bed with her friend Luisa, \"in
I\'m reading. She\'s listening.
Her grandfather found them like this, and he called them \"lazy girls \".
\"They got up right away and put on their clothes,\" went down and had a nice plate of tea with dad G.
Intimate literature, but not
The adult public of Livingston and Luisa ended in the face of family social needs that were considered more important, which in turn created a different public who used another part of the house. [37]
Older women, especially those in poor health, spend most of their time in the bedroom.
Elizabeth Dyck\'s three-volume diary often reports that she is going to retreat upstairs.
Nancy shippenn Livingston\'s mother is caught in a modern ear that sounds like clinical depression, and she chooses to spend her time in a country house, no more than a servant
Unless servants are allowed to express their opinions and establish social relations with their mistresses, the only public in which such women can participate will be letters.
Finally, when the living room or separate study room provides a place for men to think, read and write, women use a part of the bedroom for this purpose.
George Washington finally built a separate library for himself.
Martha Washington\'s little table in the bedroomfigure 5).
There is no evidence that there is a separate female library, and even the idea that there is no male guide on decorating and storing the female Library is enough to launch Joseph Addison in The Spectator, one of the most influential publications in the UK
USA, in a cut and mystery review about women\'s intelligence, taste, entertainment and use --fulness.
That is, women may have access to the library of husbands and fathers, where they become part of the public, where their tastes create markets for fiction, such as Pamela and Clarissa, it first appeared in the 1740 s, for the very popular secular moralists whose works appeared in Tattler and bystanders.
Somewhere in the mansion, perhaps on the small table in the bedroom, or in the living room, women have also created a small number of correspondents for themselves, mainly relatives, who are emotionally related to each other.
Bonded public interested in family news and literature as well as local politics and religion. [38]
Some women use their own private space for further contact.
In the Valley of Delaware, a small group of female poets shared their work with each other and their work with men, although they rarely published articles in their own work.
These literary works form yet another public, though limited to a small number of elites in the local upper class.
Few women have created and published complex verses.
Elizabeth magagali imitated Horace in 1731 publication of the wisdom and poet of Pennsylvania.
Her efforts are clearly part of a paper war with two other poets on the US Mercury weekly page.
But it\'s important.
Women are not part of the larger communications public who focus on religion, science, mathematics or politics.
In fact, the lack of time, not necessarily space, may keep most women away from the luxury of vita contemplativa, but the problem is beyond the scope of this article. [39]
To sum up, this mansion provides space for the emergence of foreign Society and the female public.
Apart from the library, men and women use the same space as men, but their conversations tend to be more superficial than everyone else --male discourse.
Contemporary ideas about female intellectuals make this phenomenon more serious. All-
The female space has never been provided without conditions except for the bedroom for single women, where young women talk, chat and read each other.
There may also be a table for women to read and write in the bedroom, thus forming a public place consisting of distant family members, friends and Les leterres.
Conclusion and influence of the 18th National Congress
See the century evolution of the colonial mansion from two rooms
There are many houses in the lobby and living room
The spacious Big House allows the formation of a multi-personality public.
The space for layered organizations allows people to enter the part of the house that is more formal, gorgeous, and mentally more content for gay activities.
These rooms form the political and intellectual center of the house, allowing male companions to interact on multiple levels.
The lower level and the women were in the neighborhood in the two-room house, and their absence allowed the male space structure.
Here, \"happy\" or serious, a man can be a man.
The isolation of elite men strengthens the kinship and solidarity between them.
Three kinds of disk staggered
The colonial public stands out from the privacy and spaciousness that the mansion offers them: friendship and trust, the wider economic and political information communication network and the humanities-
Science and Society, both physically and through communication.
In the second half of the 18th century, the number of dedicated libraries has increased, giving people the space and privacy to participate in vita contemplativa.
They were alone, surrounded by books, thinking, reading and writing letters and leaflets linked to inter-colonial and international \"Republic of Letters.
\"In fact, the gender social space provided by the big house allows the male elite of the colony to recognize themselves and feel comfortable anywhere in the colony.
On the other hand, the isolation of elite men exacerbated their differences with those \"others\" who were excluded from the male space of the mansion and exacerbated their differences.
Others include the bottom of society and women.
In the 19th century, with the rise of modern class system and the physical division of wealth to cities, the separation from lower levels will intensify.
The rich created their own clubs, schools, and communities, where they were insulated from those who were less affluent, while the people below them created a culture of work and middle class.
The mansion is for everyone.
Male space, which also provides carefully designed rooms for men and women, where they can entertain, judge and judge each other.
Dance parties, tea, and perhaps dinner allowed the elite colonists to create their upper class.
The only etiquette, literature and social achievements of these open to women emphasize elegance and kindness.
They have never become public because of political or intellectual problems, nor have they been able to reproduce the intensity of the French salon.
Women may have been given access to the bedroom, but the mansion did not provide them with the equivalent of a gentleman\'s library.
Young women use their bedrooms to entertain other young women and consolidate intimate friendships that may form a public view of emerging novels and popular moral literature such as onlookers
Women also use this space to read and write letters on their own, which link them together and become a public of kinship and friendship, not a larger public of religion, politics or science.
As the House evolved from a hall and living room structure to one of many rooms, gender segregation became possible, which may also add to the richest people of the 19th century.
Joan Kassin concluded that in the South, \"living room, fireplace, delivery room ,[and]
The \"porch\" is mainly designated for women, though not specifically. [40]
Among the richest people, however, men\'s space includes not only the library, but also smoking and pool rooms.
The logical conclusion of the independent space found in the largest House in the 19th century is a separate bedroom apartment for men and women, just like the Biltmore House in Asheville, North Carolina, where Fort van der Burg was built at the end of the 19th century.
The distance between 18 men\'s space and women\'s space is getting farther and farther
The century mansion not only creates the difference in the lives of elite men and women, but also reflects this difference.
In the 19th century, with the development of economy and society, the scale of housing will continue to expand.
Middle class and middle class
For these social classes, women are responsible for the part of the House that does not belong to men, and in the first half of the 19th century, together with other women, they formed a public place for family life.
Now the living room can show \"elegance and the look of a lady\'s residence \". \" [41]
The female public will assume the responsibility of not giving women furniture and taste in the 18th century.
It will also provide an audience for the family ideology, which creates an alternative literature of bourgeois etiquette and virtue ---
This is another example of public opinion in habmas. -
Mainly for women.
In the 18th century, this big house is an important part of the human world.
For women, the public world in the mansion has increased, including the formal living room and dining room, where she can meet other elite men and women.
She may have her own bedroom where she can entertain other women, read and write.
However, for women, the public world in the Big House has also shrunk --
Male space excludes her from the public it allows men to create.
In the process, it allows for a world view that increasingly excludes women from the political, economic and intellectual world outside the house, only gave her more isolated or superficial and then judged that she could not surpass the family or frivolous.
History of Columbia, SC 29208 EndNote I would like to thank Lawrence University time, Joseph Hoth, Jacqueline Reinier, especially Mark Smith for his review article. (1. )Richard L.
Bushman, the refinement of the United States: People, houses, cities (New York, 1993);
Reese Isaac, the transformation of Virginia 1740-1790 (
1984) New York and London;
Cary Carson, the revolution of British Colonial America: Why?
Albert, consumer interest: the 18th century lifestyle (
Charlottsville and London, 1994), 483-697; Edward A.
Chappell, housing in a country: a change in living standards in early America, ibid. , 167-232; Bernard L.
Architecture and country life in central Delaware, Herman, 1700-1900 (Knoxville, 1987)
Chapter II and Chapter III;
Dale Upton, 18 local buildings
The Virginia century by Dale Upton and John Michael vage.
, Public place: reading of Native American architecture (
Athens, Georgia, 1986), 315-335. (2. )
Carson, the revolution of colonial England America, Carson and others, consumer interest, 682-683.
There are some differences in the meaning of Mount Vernon and Monticello, see Robert F.
Building independence: Monticello, Mount Vernon, and building independent people, 18-
Century Research 26 (1993): 543-580.
Jurgen Habermas, structural transformation in the public domain: an inquiry into the social class of the bourgeoisieThomas Burger (
MA, Cambridge, 1989), 1-62, passim; Karen V.
Hansen, a very social era: the craft community before the New England War (Berkeley, 1994);
The human condition, Hannah Arendt.
Chicago, ppb, 19581989).
Habermas is popular these days.
Two studies that recently used his idea were T. H.
Breen, Ronald Hoffman, Mehar sober, and Frederick J. , \"creating history: the power of public opinion and the last years of slavery in the Revolutionary Massachusetts\"Teute, eds.
Through the dark glass: Reflection on early American personal identity
Mount Chapel, 1997), 67-
95, Nancy Lenberg, \"pillars of the same temple and priests of the same worship: women\'s rights and church and national politics before the war in the United States,\" American Journal of History1998): 98-128.
Isenberg also discussed the work of Hannah Arendt (see fn. 5). (3. )
Human Condition, Arendt, 14. (4. )
For a discussion on the concept of \"female culture\" and a detailed historical overview, see Joan E. Cashin, ed.
Our common business: the text from the women of the Old South (
Baltimore and London, 1996), 1-41.
For an overview of the literature discussing \"separate fields\", see the very social era 15-19.
While accepting these values, the middle class has also embraced the housing revolution that the United States has experienced, allowing the construction of larger, cheaper houses, which is by no means accidental.
The increase in the area of the House is due in part to the new form of construction-the \"balloon\" building, which allows the house to be composed of less large, and therefore less expensive frames, and to rise faster. (5. )
This definition combines some insights from Harth and Hansen.
For criticism of this part, please look at David S.
Shield, folk language and polite letters from the United States of England (
Chapel Hill and London, 1997), xv--xvii. (6. )
This paragraph has developed its ideas from many sources.
For the need to acknowledge the historical factors of the accidental events, see Division of Labor in Society, tr.
George Simpson (
Glanco, IL, 1960).
To learn about the impermanence of such social entities, see Victor Turner\'s discussion of the community during the ceremony: Structure and-Structure (Ithaca, 1977)
Chapter 3 and Chapter 4 and page 1. 202-203.
For an interesting discussion about meaning relativity in the context of cultural concepts, see Michael J.
Full colonial gentleman Rozbicki: cultural legitimacy of American plantations (
Charlottsville, 1998), 19-23. (7. )
Regarding the importance of the tavern, please see the progress of the Gentleman: The doctoral circuit exhibition
Alexander Hamilton 1774
Carl Briden Bao (
Mount Chapel, 1948);
Carl bridenbao, city in the wilderness: 1 century of American city life 1625-1742 (New York, 1955)109,432,267-268, 269; Kym S.
Rice, early American pub: Entertainment for friends and strangers (Chicago, 1983), 38-41; David W.
Conroy, in public: the revolution of drinks and authority in Massachusetts during colonial times (
Chapel Hill and London, 1995); Edward M.
Cook, father of town: leadership and community structure in the eighteenth century
New England centuryBaltimore, 1976);
Chapter 5 of Virginia\'s transformation Isaac[
Lord Adam Gordon
Officer Magazine, traveling in the United States and West India in 1765 and 1764, traveling in the American colonies. Newton D. Mereness (New York, 1961), 404, 397. (8. )
City in revolt: City Life in America: 1743-1776 (
London, Oxford, New York, 1955), 164-165, 366-367, 168-169, 369-371; Bruce C.
On the play of the pilgrims Daniels: The leisure and entertainment of colonial New England (New York, 1995), 116;
The early American pub, 108-110. (9. )
The owner of the plantation often works with the hostess of the plantation.
Check out the magazine and Letters of Philip Vickers fizion 1773
1774: Plantation mentor of the Old Dominion, ed.
Hunter Dickinson Farrish
Williamsburg, 1965), xxx.
Servants, not the hostess of the House, socialize with the kitchen (
Elizabeth\'s diary of drinking, ed.
Elaine Foreman Crane [Boston, 1991], l:xxvi). (10. )
There is a lot of literature on whether women\'s life in the 18th century is \"good\" or \"bad.
Much depends on the definition.
If we\'re talking about increasing opportunities, especially among the elite, then we can look at Cynthia A.
The hospitality, social and gender of the southern colony, Kierner, Southern History 62 (1996): 449-
Chapter 480 and shields, civil language and polite letters.
Catherine M. Recently found an argument about the reduction of opportunities
Brown, Good Wife, nasty Winkies and anxious ancestors: Gender, Race and Power in the Virginia Colony (
Chapel Hill and London, 1996), chapter 9;
Gender, Law and Society in Connecticut (
Chapel Hill and London, 1995);
Jane carmonski, who was in charge of the tongue: speech Politics in Early New England (
New York and Oxford, 1997). (11. )
See Robert V for a discussion about family size.
Population of 1776 former British colonies in the United States: Census Data survey (
Princeton, chapter 1975).
Although it is impossible to know exactly how many big houses there are on the 18th.
Thomas tiston Waterman found colonists for about 40 centuries.
Five in Virginia.
Thomas tiston Waterman Virginia building 1706-1776 [New York, 1945], 413-424).
Of the 708,550 houses surveyed in the 1798 federal housing census, the average value of the house was $300 and the median was $135.
About 3,808 people are worth more than $3,000, and 875 people are worth more than $6,000.
The largest mansion in the survey consists of 15 rooms distributed on three floors and 8,757 square feet.
And only the other two houses are worth more than $30,000. (
Li soltow, \"the United States of equality in the Federal period and its unequal housing\", History of Social Science 9 [1985]: 199-213. )
See also Soltow, \"Housing features at the Penn border: Residential Value in Mifflin County, 1798\", West Virginia, Pennsylvania History 47 (1980): 57-70; Billy G.
Smith, \"physical life of working people in Philadelphia, 1750-
1800, \"3rd for William and Mary. Ser. , 38 (1981): 163-202; Sharon V.
Sallinger, \"space inside and outside the eighteenth century
Philadelphia of the Century, Journal of Cross-disciplinary history1995): 1-31;
Bush man, refinement of the United States, 110; Kevin M. Sweeney, \"High-
Style vernacular: the way of life of the colonial elite, Carson and others.
, Consumer interest, 4 and \"mansion people: Kinship, class and architecture in West Massachusetts in the mid-18th century\", Winter tours portfolio 19 (1984): 231-255. (12. )
In the colonial United States, there is still a lot of debate about the scope and time of women\'s authority.
See Royce Carr and Lorenna Walsh, \"the wife of the plantation owner: the experience of a 17th-century white woman
Maryland century, William and Mary quarter, 3rd. Ser. , 34 (1977): 542-571;
Tax on salmon, women and early American wealth (
Mount Chapel, 1986); David E.
Narette, Ronald Hoffman and Peter J. \'S men\'s will and Women\'s Property Rights in colonial New York
Albert, a woman of the American Revolution
Charlottsville, 1989), 91-133;
Women in front of Dayton bar
Brown, a good wife, a nasty Wenge and anxious patriarch, chapter 9.
You can see Conroy\'s pub or cafe in public places;
Jessica cross, \"If you don\'t want to drink with me, you have to fight with me: Sociology of drinking in the central colony,\" Pennsylvania History 64 (1997): 28-55;
Carl bridenbao, city in the wilderness, 109;
Shield, civil language and courtesy letter, 112.
Structural transformation in the public sector, 33. (13. )
Information about Mount Vernon is from a mansion in Waterman, Virginia, 271-
297 and Mount Vernon: Illustrated Manual (
Mount Vernon, 1968).
Richard Bachman, improvement in the United States, 113;
Old South building: Mills Lane, South Carolina (Savannah, 1984), 63; George B.
Tatum, Philadelphia, Georgia: Samuel Poole\'s urban residence and some of its 18-
Century neighbor (
CT Middletown 1976), 87.
I counted the lobby downstairs as a room because it was used in this way. (14. )
Carson, the revolution of colonial Britain and America, consumer interests of Carson and others, 620.
My room hierarchy not only by reading some literature about space, but also by reading 18-century houses.
See the exquisite of America, Carson ,(above); Sweeney, \"High-
\"Style vernacular\" by Carson and others.
Consumer interests;
Native architecture by Upton and Vachi, Native American architecture readings.
Various footnotes to this article, as well as the House books mentioned in Bushman\'s America\'s improvements, 459, fn 15. (15. )
William Black magazine, 1744, Journal of History and Biography of Pennsylvania 1 (1877): 249.
Cynthia Kilner also made this point in the hospitality, social and gender of the southern colonies, the Journal of Southern History 62 (1996): 471-474. (16. )
The offer comes from the Marquis of Chastellux, who traveled in North America in 1780, 1781 and 1782. Howard C. Rice, Jr. , 2 vols. , (
Mount Chapel, 1963)
1: 214,176, see also pp. 119, 160.
See also let magazine for the same observationFrancois-
Count Clermont Louis-
Crevecoeur, \"the battle of the United States of 1780, 1781, 1782 and 1783 tr of the rochambo army. and ed. Howard C. Rice, Jr. , and Anne S. K. Brown, 2 vols. , (Princeton University, 1972), 1:21. (17. )
No. 57, No. 59, diary and letter. (18. )
Hamilton, tour exhibition center, 173.
The brother of Bayard did not confirm further. (19. )
Josia Quincy, a memoir of life in June. (
Boston, repr, 1825New York, 1971), 101-102,110. (20. )
Chastellux, Tour 2: 392.
Now it is believed that the various Osan epics that James McPherson has translated since 1762 are actually his works, not the early works that Jefferson and chastlu think. See Howard D.
Britannia: The Rise of British literature from deleddon to OssianCambridge, 1995). (21. )
Structural transformation in the public sector, aged 38;
David Zaret, \"Religion, Science and printing in the public domain of the 17th-century
England of the century, Craig Calhoun
Habos and the public domain (
MA, Cambridge, 1992), 212-235. (22. )
Graham Hood, Governor\'s Palace, Williamsburg: Cultural Studies (
Williamsburg, 1991), 211; Milton E.
John Dickinson: a conservative revolutionary
Charlottsville, 1983), 86, 187. (23. )
Old Southern Building Lane: South Carolina, 109; Alice R.
Smith and D. E.
Huger Smith, residence in Charleston, South Carolina (New York, n. d.
Repr in 1917), 138;
Charleston County, National Register of Historic Places, inventory, South Carolina Archives;
Gervase Wheeler, the family is in the suburbs and in the countryside (
Economic Review in New York, 1972,1855. ), 179. (24. )Kevin J.
Hayes, William Bird Library in Westford (Madison, 1997), 37 and fn 111;
The great American gentleman: William Byrd of Westford, Virginia: his secret diary of 17091712, ed. Louis B.
Wright and Marion Tinlin (New York, 1963), 203;
William Black magazine, 1744, Journal of History and Biography of Pennsylvania1877): 407;
Diary and letter, xxx, 7, 45. (25. )
Building independence, 18-
26th century research1993): 574.
Dalzell asked what public and private means in this case.
Wendell garlitte, an American colony: the simplicity of the Qing\'s elegance to Georgia (New York, 1995), 260. (26. )
The great American gentleman Byrd, passim;
Benjamin Franklin\'s newspaperLeonard W. Labaree (New Haven, 1959), 3:115, fn 4.
Cadwallader Colden\'s paper as a new-
Vols collection of the New York Historical Society. 50-56 (1917-1923);
Hannah Logan\'s courtship: A Real Story
(Albert Cook Meyers)
Philadelphia, 1904), 139;
133 pages of Quincy\'s memoirs
However, he had published his farmer\'s letter before Dickinson obtained Fairhill. Milton W.
Hamilton, the Library of Sir William Johnson\"
New York Historical Society1956): 209-251.
Sir William\'s probate list, Sir William Johnson\'s paper, mentions \"old Research \".
W Hamilton (Albany, 1962)13:650. (27. )
Barbara Walte, \"the worship of real women: 1820-
1860, the United States quarterly report 18 (1966): 151-174.
For an overview of the literature, see Linda K.
Kerber, the field of independence, the world of women, the position of women: Rhetoric of women\'s history, American Journal of History 75 (1988): 9-39;
Cash, our common business, chapter one. (28. )
Reese Isaac, transformation of Virginia, 81-87;
Diary and letter, 56 years old;
62 issues of Southern History, hospitality, social and gender (1996): 468-471. (29. )
Rodis rose, \"tea on the 18th
\"Century America: etiquette and equipment\" Bulletin of the National Museum of America 25:14 (1961): 70. (30. )
James Fordes, preaching to young women, published in issue 1765, Kevin J. Quotes
Hayes on the shelf of colonial women (Knoxville, 1996), 58-59.
Fordyce is one of the most popular books of its kind in the eighteenth century
In the 1813 S, there were fourteen versions of England.
According to Kathryn Kirkpatrick, the target audience is not the upper class in Britain, but the new middle class. (
Routing and constraints: Behavior
The relationship between calligraphy and property at the end of the 18th
England of the century, Beth Fox Tobin
History, gender and 18-
Century Literature [
Athens, Georgia, 1994], 198-226);
Kamensky, 183,184, which manages the tongue. (31. )
Ch
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